How to preserve women’s health and what diseases are most dangerous for the female body? Women’s health is a delicate topic: even a not serious illness can harm the health of the representative of the fair sex if to ignore it. Women rarely talk about gynecological diseases, even with close people and, unfortunately, when these or those alarming symptoms appear, they often avoid visiting the doctor: they interfere with the feeling of awkwardness and fear of hearing an alarming diagnosis. Meanwhile, contrary to stereotypes, common diseases of the genital area at the present stage of the development of medicine are perfectly treated without complicating the patient’s further life.
Gynecological diseases not only bring a lot of discomfort and pain but also create conditions for the degradation of offspring. Many of them are asymptomatic and only an experienced doctor will be able to determine the presence of problems in the body. We will consider gynecological diseases, which most often undermine the health of women.
- 4 Main Symptoms of Gynecological Diseases
- Disease number 1: Cervical erosion
- Disease number 2: Colpitis
- Disease number 3: Myoma of the uterus
- Disease number 4: Adnexitis
- Disease number 5: Endometriosis
Usually, discomfort in the genital area can be suspected by one of the following symptoms:
- Disruption of the menstrual cycle: it is manifested by the absence of menstrual cycles, changes in the nature and duration of bleeding, unusually large blood loss (when a woman is forced to change tampons more often using hygienic means with an increased amount of absorption) and “breakthrough” bleeding in the middle of the cycle. Similar manifestations are typical for many gynecological diseases of the endocrine and tumor nature.
- Pain: Acute pain is a possible sign of a life-threatening condition: for example, apoplexy (break) of the ovary, which requires urgent hospitalization. Aching pain, as a rule, worries a woman during menstruation or before it, in other cases – during sexual intercourse.
- Pathological symptoms: brown, milky white, yellowish, foamy, purulent, with an unpleasant or unusual smell of vaginal discharge – always a cause for concern. If you notice something strange on the underwear as well as in the case of complete absence of any discharge, except menstrual blood, during the cycle (dry vaginal syndrome) – sign up for a consultation with a gynecologist.
- Itching: it is noted in various pathologies of the female sexual sphere. In combination with abundant white secretions, this symptom occurs with thrush (candidiasis of the vagina).
A site of redness on the cervix, visible to the naked eye when viewed in mirrors is called a cervical erosion. Most women are very surprised when they hear such a diagnosis. The thing is that this insidious disease very often does not manifest itself in any way. However, even if you don’t feel discomfort, it is necessary to treat this pathological process as on the background of this diagnose the further development of cancer is possible.
In general, the disease is one of the most frequent pathologies in women of childbearing age. But what is cervical erosion? This is a violation of integrity, defect or covering the ulcers of its mucous membrane in the vaginal part. Erosion becomes the gateway to infection in the uterus and appendages and can provoke the development of chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases until the onset of infertility. The most dangerous complication of cervical erosion is its degeneration into malignant formation. That is why it is so important to identify it as soon as possible.
Causes of Erosion:
- hormonal disorders and decreased immunity, malfunctions in the menstrual cycle;
- early onset of sexual activity, as well as early pregnancy and childbirth;
- frequent change of sexual partners;
- poor personal hygiene;
- mechanical trauma resulting from severe childbirth, abortion and other medical manipulations; because of incorrect use of vaginal contraceptives or mistakenly performed douching, or too coarse sex;
- inflammatory and infectious diseases of the genitourinary sphere, including their untimely and incorrect treatment;
- bacterial and viral diseases;
- unfavorable heredity.
The situation with cervical erosion is complicated by the fact that this disease does not have pronounced symptoms and in most cases does not manifest itself at all. But in the course of the development of erosion, patients can notice the following unpleasant symptoms:
- bloody, and sometimes purulent discharge between menstruation, which can appear, for example, after a sexual act;
- profuse vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor;
- more prolonged and profuse menstruation;
- pain in the lower abdomen during urination or intercourse.
Methods of Erosion Treatment
There is an opinion that it is not necessary to treat erosion of the cervix in women who haven’t given birth to kids. If there is erosion of the cervix of small size, it is sometimes considered as a physiological norm and doesn’t require any kinds of interference in the body, except for constant observation. Some cases of erosion of the cervix require surgical treatment, which today can be carried out in several effective ways:
- Laser removal: the most effective and modern method that can provide the highest precision of the cut and at the same time keep healthy tissues intact. As a result, everything heals quickly enough (for 4-6 weeks) and without scars. As a rule, laser treatment is prescribed not to give birth to women.
- Cryodestruction: treatment of the cervix with liquid nitrogen, that is, its freezing. When interacting with nitrogen, water in the tissue cells becomes crystals, as a result of which the cellular structure of the affected area of the cervix will be destroyed. The healing time in this case is 8-10 weeks, but this method of treatment implies subsequent long-term observation, since together with the unhealthy cells, the surface layer can also be damaged.
- Diathermocoagulation – burning out cervical erosion by high-frequency electric current. This is the most common way to treat this pathology in women’s clinics, but it is also very painful, with the subsequent formation of scars.
- Chemical coagulation: in the course of this method, the damaged cervical region is treated with special preparations aimed at corroding patients’ cells. Scars after this do not remain, so treatment is appropriate for women who haven’t given birth to kids as well.
- Radio wave treatment: a section of the cervix with erosion is processed by high energy radio waves, and since there is no pressure on the tissue, tissues are damaged minimally. The burn is completely excluded, because this method is based on evaporation of water molecules from damaged cells. As a result, there is no scarring, and the healing time is halved, amounting to about 3-5 weeks.
Important: Remember that even erosion of small size is the gateway to infections, and therefore it can indirectly contribute to the emergence of diseases of the organs of the sexual sphere.
Inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, very common in women who have an active sex life. Inflammation can be caused by various microorganisms (chlamydia, trichomonads, mycoplasmas, streptococci, staphylococcus, hemophilic rod, candida, gonococcus, etc.), most often by their associations.
Causes of Colpitis:
- acute and chronic diseases of internal organs, leading to a decrease in immune reactions of the body (including inflammatory processes in the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes);
- infection with sexual transmission (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis);
- disorders in the endocrine system (obesity, diabetes, ovarian hypofunction);
- excessive use of medicines, including long courses of antibiotic treatment;
- allergic reactions to hygienic and contraceptive means (tampons, condoms, suppositories, etc.);
- chemical, mechanical or thermal traumas of the mucous membrane of the genitals (during medical manipulations: mini-abortion, intrauterine spiral injection, douching, etc.);
- anatomical changes in the vagina (decreased tone and lowering of its walls, gaping of the sexual slit).
Symptoms of colpitis:
Depending on the pathogen and severity of the disease, colpitis symptoms may vary:
- secretions in large quantities (mucous, mucopurulent, sometimes bloody) with an unpleasant (sometimes fetid) odor;
- itching and burning caused by the irritating effect of pathological discharge;
- puffiness and reddening of the mucous membranes of the vagina and external genital organs;
- pain in the lower abdomen and genitals (feeling of bursting, pressure).
Treatment of colpitis
In the treatment of colpitis, modern gynecology effectively applies general and local therapies. Treatment, as a rule, is combined and selected depending on the type of colpitis, the age of the patient, concomitant diseases, etc.
Local treatment consists in the sanitation of the external genitalia and vagina (washing and syringing with sage broth, chamomile, chlorophyllipt, potassium permanganate solution, zinc sulfate, rivanol, etc.). Tampons with sea buckthorn oil, antimicrobial vaginal suppositories and tablets are introduced in the vagina. With persistent, pronounced colpitis, local antibiotics are applied taking into account the sensitivity of the pathogen (emulsions, solutions), physiotherapy procedures.
Important: General therapy is aimed at the treatment of concomitant gynecological, metabolic, endocrine diseases, normalization of the hormonal and immune background of the body.
It is a benign tumor that occurs in the muscular layer of the uterus – myometrium. Previously, the uterine myoma was considered to be an exclusively hormone-dependent tumor that occurs with an excess of female sex hormones of estrogens. Currently, much attention is paid to the influence of the infectious factor on the development of myoma nodes, in particular, the role of chlamydia in this process is not ruled out. Complaints occur most often with the growth of myomatous nodes inside the uterus.
Main causes of myoma:
The question of the exact causes of this disease is still open: in each case, it is important to study the patient’s health, the way of life, heredity. Among the reasons that can lead to tumor growth, experts name the following:
- Lack of delivery and breastfeeding by age 30;
- Later onset of menstruation;
- Improperly selected birth control pills;
- Gynecological diseases;
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- Genetic predisposition;
- Excess weight and lack of physical activity;
- Constant stress
Symptoms of myoma
Myoma of the uterus does not always show itself clearly pronounced signs. Nevertheless, most patients have the following symptoms:
- Unusual menstruation (duration of more than 8 days, pain, the appearance of blood clots);
- Pelvic pain;
- A feeling of pressure and heaviness in the pelvic area;
- Pain in the back and legs;
- Pain during sexual intercourse;
- Bladder compression, leading to rapid urination;
- Increased abdominal size;
- Bowel movement, leading to constipation
Treatment of myoma
Treatment of myoma is divided into medicinal and operative. For the treatment of women in childbearing age, medicinal methods (drug treatment) are always preferred. Operative intervention should always have certain reasons and be performed only in extreme cases. Operational treatment of fibroids can lead to the loss of the possibility of having children. That is why it is important to be examined on time and not to bring the situation to extreme measures. If the indications for surgery are really weighty, doctors try, with all possible risks, to preserve the uterus and the genital function of a woman. In this case, methods such as myomectomy (removal of the tumor), as well as embolization of the uterine arteries (blocking the blood flow to the tumor, causing it to decrease) are possible. Removal of the uterus is used, mainly, only in women who have emerged from childbearing age.
Important: Even after reducing or removing the tumor, a woman’s health requires attention and observation. The presence of harmful factors can lead to a new growth of the tumor.
Adnexitis is a one-sided or bilateral inflammation of the appendages, including the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Inflammation of this type is formed due to the action of various microorganisms, which can be transferred in acute or chronic form. It should be noted that adnexitis, the symptoms of which are quite common among women, defining the disease itself as one of the most common in the field of gynecological diseases, is also characterized by the occurrence of frequent relapses. Moreover, inflammation is, as a rule, captures both organs at once, and its danger lies in the formation of subsequent infertility for every fifth sick woman.
Causes of adnexitis
- a sexually transmitted infection(chlamydia, gonococcus, Trichomonas, sometimes Staphylococcus aureus, etc.)ж
- a frequent change of sexual partners;
- unprotected sex,
- a too rapid resumption of sexual life after childbirth,
- abortion or gynecological operations.
An important role is played by the state of immunity, since if a woman is under constant stress, she is more prone to adnexitis. The cause of adnexitis can become and hypothermia due to the fact that a woman dresses not for the weather. The presence of an intrauterine device can also provoke inflammation of the appendages.
Symptoms of adnexitis
- deterioration of general well-being;
- pain during sex;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- constant urge to urinate,
Treatment of adnexitis
Most often, the treatment is based on antibiotic therapy, in which antibiotics corresponding to the cephalosporin or penicillin group are prescribed. The duration of the course is about 14 days, after which the adnexitis and its symptoms disappear. Also there are drugs that contribute to inhibiting the growth of anaerobic bacteria. To eliminate symptoms characteristic to general intoxication intravenous vitamins and solutions are used. With the development of peritonitis, as well as in the formation of purulent sacs, treatment is performed promptly.
Important: Adnexitis can be diagnosed after a microbiological study aimed at studying the contents of the fallopian tubes, and, finally, when using ultrasound.
Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease in which endometrial cells (the inner layer of the uterine wall) grow outside this layer. These sites undergo all those changes that occur in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle.
Endometriosis is typical for women of reproductive age (20-45 years old). The most common genital endometriosis (92-94%) is in which endometrial sites can be located on the genitals – the cervix, vagina, perineum, fallopian tubes, ovaries, peritoneum. In this case, this is an external genital endometriosis. With internal genital endometriosis, such areas are located in the thickness of the muscular wall of the uterus.
Causes of endometriosis
- frequent infectious;
- inflammatory processes in the organs of the small pelvis and the reproductive system;
- neoplasms, tumors, uterine fibroids;
- operative manipulation, invasive procedures (surgical interventions, abortion, cleaning of the uterine cavity, surgical treatment of cervical erosion, etc.);
- a birth process with complications;
- endocrine disorders, hormonal imbalances of various etiologies;
- immune deficit;
- smoking, excessive use of alcohol, caffeine-containing drinks and drugs.
Symptoms of endometriosis
- painful sensations, sometimes expressed and prolonged, in the lower abdomen, giving in the groin, in the lower back, the so-called “chronic pelvic pains”;
- increased soreness in sexual intercourse, defecation, gynecological examinations;
- prolonged painful menstruation with abundant secretions (up to anemic states), menstrual cycle disorders;
- primary, secondary infertility.
Treatment of endometriosis
Symptomatic treatment of endometriosis is aimed at arresting the pain syndrome. For these purposes, the patient is prescribed drugs based on prostaglandin inhibitors, antispasmodics and analgesics. A good effect in eliminating the pain syndrome in endometriosis is given by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Surgical treatment of endometriosis can be divided into symptomatic relief (shown to women planning to give birth), “semi-conservative” (ability to reproduce ceases, but the ovaries remain) and radical treatment (removal of the uterus with appendages).
Important: The method of surgical treatment depends on the severity of the disease, the age of the woman, the planning of pregnancy. During the surgical operation, the doctor removes the foci of endometriosis.